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カテゴリ : 
くも本 (面白い絶版書の紹介)
執筆 : 
Tom Gally  投稿日 2009-12-24 10:30
1月9日に、ある学会で語彙学習について話すことになった。内容は、私が関わった『東大英単』がメインになるが、過去に語彙習得がどのように行なわれたかについても話そうと思って、 Internet Archive で外国語教授法などについての本を探してみた。後日にそこでの発見について書こうと思うが、今日はとりあえず、本のタイトルと直リンクを年代順に載せる。皆さんもどうぞ、覗いてみてください。
1571/1767. The Schole Master; Or Plaine and Perfite Way of Teaching Children, to Understand, Write, and Speak, the Latin Tongue. Roger Ascham. London. [現代スペルの別版]
1660/1912. A New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching Schoole. Charles Hoole. London/Syracuse.
1673/1905. Milton's Tractate on Education. John Milton. Cambridge.
1684/1922. The Educational Writings of John Locke. John William Adamson (editor). Cambridge.
1709. A Short Introduction of Grammar Generally to be Used; Compiled and Set Forth for the Bringing Up of All Those that Intend to Attain to the Knowledge of the Latin Tongue. William Lily. Oxford.
1718. Grammatical Commentaries: Being an Apparatus to a New National Grammar. Richard Johnson. London.
1726/1769. The Method of Teaching and Studying the Belles Lettres. Volume 1 2 3. Charles Rollin. Translated from the French. London.
1727. A Compendious Way of Teaching Antient and Modern Languages. J. T. Philipps. London.
1729 or earlier/1856. "Advice to a Young Student. With a Method of Study for the First Four Years." In: The Works of the Rev. Daniel Waterland, D.D. Oxford.
1731. Reflections on the Nature and Property of Languages in General, And on the Advantages, Defects, and Manner of Improving the English Tongue in Particular. Thomas Stackhouse. London.
1737. An Introduction to the Classics Containing, a Short Discourse on their Excellencies; and Directions How to Study Them to Advantage. Anthony Blackwall. London.
1784. A Treatise on Education with A Sketch of the Author's Method. George Chapman. London.
1791. A New Method of Learning with Facility the Latin Tongue, Containing the Rules of Genders, Declensions, Preterites, Syntax, Quantity, and Latin Accents. Volume 1 2. Messieurs de Port Royal. Thomas Nugent (translator). London.
1808. A New Method of Learning with Facility the Greek Tongue: Containing Rules for the Declensions, Conjugations, Resolution of Verbs, Syntax, Quantity, Accents, Dialects, and Poetic Licence. Messieurs de Port Royal. Thomas Nugent (translator). London.
1812/1846. A Grammar of the French Tongue; with a Preface, Containing an Essay on the Proper Method of Teaching and Learning that Language. Lewis Chambaud. London.
1815. "On Grammar and Classical Literature." In: Essays on Practical Education. Volume 1 2. Maria & R.L. Edgeworth. London.
1821. Substance of Lectures on the Ancient Greeks and on the Revival of Greek Learning in Europe. Volume 1 (Google) 2 (Internet Archive). Andrew Dalzel. Edinburgh.
1822. Plans for the Government and Liberal Instruction of Boys, in Large Numbers; Drawn from Experience. First edition. Thomas Wright Hill. London.
1823. An Exposure of the Fallacy of the Hamiltonian System. John Hooper Hartnoll. London.
1824. A Vocabulary of the Greek Roots; Calculated to Facilitate to the Young Student the Acquisition of That Language. Richard Povah. London.
1825. Public Education: Plans for the Government and Liberal Instruction of Boys, in Large Numbers; As Practised at Hazelwood School. Second edition. Thomas Wright Hill.
1826. Remarks on the Study of Languages Preparatory to Admission into College; Addressed to Instructers of Youth. Brunswick.
1827. A Letter to the Right Honorable the Earl of Shrewsbury, on a New Method of Teaching and Learning Languages: To Which is Added a Specimen of an Introduction to the Latin Language. Arthur Clifford. Oxford.
1827. Nature Displayed in Her Mode of Teaching Language to Man. Volume 1 2. N.G. Dufief. Philadelphia.
1830. A Compendious Exposition of the Principles and Practice of Professor Jacotot's Celebrated System of Education. Joseph Payne. London.
1830. An Essay on the Cultivation of the Intellect by the Study of Dead Languages. William Sewell. London.
1830. Observations on the Study of the Latin and Greek Languages. George Long. London.
1831. The History, Principles, Practice, and Results of the Hamiltonian System. James Hamilton. London.
1831. Some Account of the Jacotot System of Universal Instruction: With a Preliminary Reference to the Systems of Lancaster, Fellenburgh, and Pestalozzi. "By a Member of the Third Department." New York.
1833. Lecture on the Best Methods of Teaching the Living Languages. George Ticknor. Boston.
1834. Lectures on Popular Education. George Combe. Boston.
1842. A General and Practical System of Teaching and Learning Languages; Applied to All Languages, Especially the French. C. Le Vert. London.
1843. A Course of Lessons in the French Language, on the Robertsonian Method; Intended for the Use of Persons Studying the Language Without a Teacher. A.H. Monteith. London.
1845. "On the Teaching of Languages." In: Foreign Quarterly Review, Volume 35, pp. 170-187. (J.S. Blackie?). London.
1847. "On the Comparative Advantages of Some Methods of Teaching Latin and Greek." In: The Classical Museum, Volume 4, pp. 388-427. London.
1850. Mezzofanti's System of Learning Languages Applied to the Study of French. J. Roemer. New York.
1853. Language as a Means of Mental Culture and International Communication; or Manual of the Teacher and the Learner of Languages. Volume 1 2. C. Marcel. London.
1853/1862?. The Whole French Language. Volume 1. T. Robertson. Paris.
1854. Suggestions for the Assistance of Officers in Learning the Languages of the Seat of War in the East. Max Müller. London.
1856. The Relative Importance of Ancient and Modern Languages Considered as Branches of General Education. No author. New York.
1858. "Grammar Schools." James Edward Carlile. In: Essays by Ministers of the Free Church of Scotland, pp. 275-327. Edinburgh.
1859. On the Study of Modern Languages in General, and of the English Language in Particular. David Asher. London.
1864. The Mastery of Languages; or, the Art of Speaking Foreign Tongues Idiomatically. Thomas Prendergast. London.
1867. Essays on a Liberal Education. F.W. Farrar (editor). London.
1868. Handbook to the Mastery Series. Thomas Prendergast. New York.
1869. Remarks on the Study of Languages, and Hints on Comparative Translation and Philological Construing. John Price. London.
1869. The Serial and Oral Method of Teaching Languages; Adapted to the French. L. Manesca. Philadelphia.
1870. The Practical Linguist; Being a System Based Entirely Upon Natural Principles of Learning to Speak, Read, and Write the German Language. David Nasmith. London.
1871. "Language and Education." William Dwight Whitney. In: The North American Review, Volume 113, pp. 343-374. Boston.
1873. The Study of Languages Brought Back to Its True Principles, or the Art of Thinking in a Foreign Languages. C. Marcel. New York.
1875. Introduction to the Teaching of Living Languages Without Grammar or Dictionary. L. Sauveur. Boston.
1875. Prendergast's Mastery System, Adapted to the Study of Japanese or English. Samuel Robbins Brown. Yokohama.
1876. German without Grammar or Dictionary: or A Guide to Learning and Teaching the German Language. According to the Pestalozzian Method of Teaching, by Object Lessons. Part I. Zur Brücke. Chicago. [also 1886 edition]
1878. The Study of Modern Languages: Thorough Method v. Natural Method; A Letter to Dr. L. Sauveur. J. Levy. Boston.
1880. How to Teach and Learn Modern Languages Successfully, Especially French, and Its Teaching at School. Francis Lichtenberger. London.
1886. Modern Languages in Education. George F. Comfort. Syracuse.
1887. On the Teaching of Modern Languages in Theory and Practice. C. Colbeck. Cambridge.
1888/1903. The Teaching of Languages in Schools. W. H. Widgery. London.
1889. Physiological Notes on Primary Education and the Study of Language. Mary Putnam Jacobi. New York.
1890. Lectures on Language and Linguistic Method in the School. S.S. Laurie. Cambridge.
1891. Modern Languages and Classics in America and Europe Since 1880: Ten Years' Progress of the New Learning. A. F. Chamberlain. Toronto.
1892. The Art of Teaching and Studying Languages. François Gouin. Howard Swan and Victor Bétis (translators). London.
1893. Methods of Teaching Modern Languages: Papers on the Value and on Methods of Modern Language Instruction. A. Marshall Elliott et al. Boston.
1897. How Best to Learn to Speak or Teach a Language: Better Because Easier—Easier for Being Quicker. Charles Baillairgé. Halifax.
1898-1904.The Modern Quarterly of Language and Literature [title later changed to The Modern Language Quarterly] Vol 1 1 (continuation) 2 3 4 5 6 7. H. Frank Heath (editor). London.
1899. The Method of Teaching Modern Languages in Germany. Mary Brebner.
1899. The Practical Study of Languages: A Guide for Teachers and Learners. Henry Sweet. New York.
1899. The Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages in Our Secondary Schools. Karl Breul. Cambridge.
1901. Report of the Committee of Twelve of the Modern Language Association of America. Calvin Thomas. Boston.
1901. The Teaching of Latin and Greek in the Secondary School. Charles E. Bennett and George P. Bristol. New York.
1902 or earlier. How to Learn a Foreign Language: A Review of the Best Methods, Including the Latest Up to Date. William Pulman. Manchester.
1903. Handbook of Irish Teaching, Founded on the Discoveries of M. Gouin. P.T. MacGinley. Dublin.
1903. The Teaching of Modern Languages in Schools and Colleges. D. T. Holmes. Paisley.
1903/1905. The Teaching of Modern Languages. Leopold Bahlsen. M. Blakemore Evans (translator). Boston.
1905 - 1919. Modern Language Teaching. Volume 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15. Walter Rippmann et al (editors). London.
1905. The Teaching of Modern Languages with Special Reference to Big Towns. Cloudesley Brereton. London.
1906. Hints on Language as a Means of Mental Discipline and on the Importance of the Study of Modern Languages. R. J. Isnard. London.
1906. The Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages and the Training of Teachers. Karl Breul. Cambridge.
1907. Is Modern Language Teaching a Failure? C. H. Grandgent.
1907. The Practice of Instruction: A Manual of Method General and Special. John William Adamson (editor). London.
1909. The Teaching of Foreign Languages: Principles and Methods. F. B. Kirkman. London.
1913. English for the Non-English. Norman Fergus Black. Regina.
1913. The Teaching of Modern Languages in the United States. Charles Hart Handschin. Washington.
1914. Adamitics: An Essay on First Man's Language or the Easiest Way to Learn Foreign Languages. Anthony de Velics. Budapest.
1914. English for Foreigners. Peter Roberts and Others. Urbana.
1914. Suggestions and References for Modern Language Teachers. Thomas Edward Oliver (editor). Urbana.
1915. The Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages by the Organised Method. Hardress O'Grady. London.
1915. Via Nova, or the Application of the Direct Method to Latin and Greek. W.H.S. Jones. Cambridge.
1916. The Direct Method in Modern Languages: Contributions to Methods and Didactics in Modern Languages. Carl A. Krause. New York.
1916-1922. The Modern Language Journal. Volume 1 2 3 4 5 6. New York.
1917. The Scientific Study & Teaching of Languages. Harold E. Palmer. Yonkers-on-Hudson.
1918. English for Coming Americans. Teacher's Manual. A Rational System for Teaching English to Foreigners. Peter Roberts. New York.
1918. How to Teach English to Foreigners. Henry H. Goldberger. New York.
1919. Has the War Proved that Our Methods of Teaching Modern Languages in the Colleges are Wrong? A Symposium. E. C. Hills.
1919. Method for Teaching Modern Languages: English Part. First Book. M. D. Berlitz. New York.
1920. The Teaching and Cultivation of the French Language in England During Tudor and Stuart Times. Kathleen Lambley. Manchester.
1920. The Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages in School and University. Henry Gibson Atkins and H. L. Hutton. London.
1920 (ca.; n.d.). A Method of Teaching English to Foreigners. George Elmore Reaman. Ithaca.
1921-1922. Modern Languages: A Review of Foreign Letters, Science and the Arts. Volume II. E.A. Craddock (editor). London.
1922. The Oral Method of Teaching Languages: A Monograph on Conversational Methods Together with a Full Description and Abundant Examples of Fifty Appropriate Forms of Work. Harold E. Palmer. Cambridge.
1926. Learning to Read a Foreign Language: An Experimental Study. Michael West. London.


カテゴリ : 
くも本 (面白い絶版書の紹介)
執筆 : 
Tom Gally  投稿日 2009-11-30 21:50
今年4月にこのブログを始めたとき、くも本の紹介が大きなウェートを持つことになろうとは思わなかった。しかしその後、オンラインで無料で読める本の数と多様性に圧倒されてきた。今は毎日、時には一日に数回、Internet Archive 上の American Libraries コレクションに追加された本のリストをチェックする。そして毎日、時には一日に数回、面白い本が見つかる。今回は、特にテーマを設定しないで、見つけた本をいくつか紹介する。

私は子供の時に World Almanac and Book of Facts という年鑑を愛読していた。内容はスポーツの記録から歴代米大統領のプロフィールまで多岐に渡っている。(日本の『現代用語の基礎知識』などは内容が違うが同じような面白さがある。)大人になってからもほぼ毎年 World Almanac を購入していたが、2005年版以降は買っていない。

World Almanac を思い出したのは、今いる東京・御徒町の喫茶店で仕事をしながらやはり Internet Archive に新着本のリストをチェックしたら、The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1848 という年鑑が載っていたからだ。この1848年版のGoogle によるスキャンはお粗末だったが、1836年版は綺麗に読める。日蝕と月蝕の予測からフランスの貧困統計まで、様々な情報が載っている。当時代のアメリカ文学や歴史を研究する人、または単なる雑学が好きな人にとっては、読み応えのある本だ。(Internet Library の新着リストでGoogleの杜撰スキャンを無表示にするためにこのリンクを使ってください。)

次の本を見つけたのがいつだったか覚えていないが、この間、京都へ出張に行ったときに新幹線内でも無事にネットにアクセスできたので、もしかしてその時だったかも知れない。タイトルは Murray and Co.'s Book of Information for Railway Travellers and Railway Officials Illustrated with Anecdotes, etc (1865年)。これは鉄道の雑学本で、Illegality of commencing a journey by Railway without previously obtaining a ticket (切符未購入での乗車の違法性)から Railway Phrases (鉄道の語彙集)までがある。 Illegality of commencing ... のところでは、次のように書いている。
Any passenger not producing or deliverying up his ticket as aforesaid, will be required to pay the fare from the most distant place whence any part of the train originally started....

まったく別種の本だが、1908年の Early Woodcut Initials は印象深い。次は「哲学者のアルファベット」。

最後に、 Workers of the Nation第1巻第2巻(1903年)を紹介する。これは、20世紀初期の様々な職業を説明する、社会史の研究にも貴重な本だ。次の写真は、Buildings, Bridges, and Building Trades の章に出ている。


カテゴリ : 
くも本 (面白い絶版書の紹介)
執筆 : 
Tom Gally  投稿日 2009-11-24 21:40
『Web英語青年』11月号では新田啓子氏が『ハックルベリー・フィンの冒険』について鋭く論じる。マーク・トウェインのその小説は何度も読み返すに値するが、私は初めて読もうとしたときに途中でやめた。11, 12歳ごろだったと思う。その時に『トム・ソーヤーの冒険』を愛読していたので、その続編である『ハック』からも同じ快楽を求めたが見出せなかった。高校で、そして大人になってからまた読んだら、その奥深さがやっと分かった。

ヘミングウェイが "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn." と書いたのは1935年の『アフリカの緑の丘』の中だった。その当時の「現代アメリカ文学」には、『ハックルベリー・フィン』の影響が、ヘミングウェイ自身の小説だけではなく、他の作家の作品にも多少見られていたと思う。しかし、20世紀が進むとその影が薄くなり、 John Updike, Ann Beattie, Thomas Pynchon などの作品も『ハック』から来たとは言いがたい。


その後の版には、別の人が描いたイラストがある。次は 1896年


『ハックルベリー・フィン』やトウェインの Life on the Mississippi からミシシッピ川に愛着を感じる人が多い。私もそうだが、その川を実際に見たのは、7歳と19歳の二回、車で横断している数分間のみだ。

19世紀のミシシッピ川については、ウェブ上の本で絵や写真をいろいろ見ることができる。The River Mississippi from St. Paul to New Orleans, Illustrated and Described with Views and Descriptions of Cities Connected with Its Trade and Commerce, and Other Places and Objects of Interest in the Valley of the Mississippi with 30 River Charts and 40 Engravings という長いタイトルの本(1859年)には、『ハックルベリー・フィン』を連想させるイラストがある。

Four Months in a Sneak-Box(1879年)は、オハイオ川やミシシッピ川を小船で下った人の記録だ。(ちなみに、sneak-box は「《米》 忍猟船《小木・雑草などで偽装した水鳥[カモ]猟用の平底の小船》.」(『新英和大辞典』)だそうだ。私には初耳の言葉。)

We judged that three nights more would fetch us to Cairo, at the bottom of Illinois, where the Ohio River comes in, and that was what we was after. We would sell the raft and get on a steamboat and go way up the Ohio amongst the free States, and then be out of trouble.
ここで書いたように、この Cairo はエジプトの Cairo ではなくイリノイ州の最南端にある都市。(『新英和大辞典』などが指摘するように、イリノイの Cairo はエジプトの Cairo と発音が違う。サウス・ダコタ州の州都 Pierre も人名 Pierre と違う発音をする。地元民ではないかぎり、それを知らないアメリカ人も多いと思う。)ハックとジムは結局 Cairo を通り越して、更に南へ行くことになるので、その後のストーリーが成り立つ。

ハックとジムが見逃した Cairo は、1841年には次の姿を持っていた。

蛇足だが、Mississippi という言葉を聞くと、どうしても "Miss the Mississippi and You" という曲が私の耳に響く。 Emmylou Harrisの見事なライブは YouTube にある。


カテゴリ : 
くも本 (面白い絶版書の紹介)
執筆 : 
Tom Gally  投稿日 2009-10-17 19:30
たまたま Internet Archive に追加された本のリストを見ていたら、A First Reader という子供向け読本があった。イラストに引かれて同名の本を検索したら、多数存在する。ここでいくつを紹介する。

A First Reader by Anna B. Badlam (1889)

A First Reader by Florence Bass (1904)

Child's First Reader by Benn Pitman (1904?)

The Howell First Reader by Logan Douglass Howell (1911)

First Reader: Part 1 (1884)

First Reader: Part 2 (1884)

New National First Reader (1884)

ちなみに、先日、グーグル社の創設者の一人である Sergey Brin が、「くも本」のメリットを『ニューヨーク・タイムズ』で論じていた。まだ著作権が切れていない本に対するグーグルのスタンスに賛同しにくい面があるが、私も、できるだけ多くの本がいずれウェブでアクセスできるようになることを望んでいる。紙の本も愛おしいが。


カテゴリ : 
くも本 (面白い絶版書の紹介)
執筆 : 
Tom Gally  投稿日 2009-9-15 19:10
The progress of the friendship between Catherine and Isabella was quick as its beginning had been warm, and they passed so rapidly through every gradation of increasing tenderness that there was shortly no fresh proof of it to be given to their friends or themselves. They called each other by their Christian name, were always arm in arm when they walked, pinned up each other's train for the dance, and were not to be divided in the set; and if a rainy morning deprived them of other enjoyments, they were still resolute in meeting in defiance of wet and dirt, and shut themselves up, to read novels together. (ジェーン・オースティン『ノーサンガー僧院(Northanger Abbey)』)

The next day, however, as the two young ladies sate on the sofa, pretending to work, or to write letters, or to read novels, Sambo came into the room with his usual engaging grin, with a packet under his arm, and a note on a tray. (サッカレー『虚栄の市(Vanity Fair)』)

This was a realisation of those delights of life of which she had read in the thrice-thumbed old novels which she had gotten from the little circulating library at Bungay. (アントニー・トロロープ『我々の今の生き方(The Way We Live Now)』)


現在は、米国やカナダの図書館の本棚に眠っている古い小説のスキャンがほぼ毎日 Internet Archive に追加されている。次の3点は、Wikipedia に出ていない無名の著者による小説だ。傑作かどうかわからないが、ここで紹介する。
The Fellow Commoner by John Hobert Caunter (1836)

A Romance of Modern London by Curtis Yorke (1892)

Jack Warleigh: A Tale of the Turf and the Law by Dalrymple J. Belgrave (1891)
それぞれを覗いてみたら、 A Romance of Modern LondonJack Warleigh は比較的平易な英語で書かれているが、 The Fellow Commoner はかなり凝った文体を使っている。そのストーリーも社会の下層で展開しているようなので、『虚栄の市』などのお嬢さんたちの趣味に合わなかっただろう。次はその書き出しだ。
James Dillon, known many years to a considerable portion of the comitatus vulgus, under the facetious sobriquet of the Hobgoblin, from his extraordinary adroitness and activity of locomotion, or by the more characteristic cognomen of Slippery Jim, from the eel-like lubricity with which he escaped from the official clutches of watchmen and thief-catchers, was born in Plumtree-street, St. Giles's, towards the close of a hot night in June, somewhere about the latter end of the last century. He first saw the light in the cellar of a small house, which, with only eight rooms, and these of very moderate dimensions, gave nightly shelter to a hundred and ten squalid creatures, exhibiting "the human form divine" under the mask of that odious moral deformity which eclipses the divine, and degrades the human into an object the most bestial and revolting. Vice here held her nightly orgies in unrestrained luxuriance; and so consummate was the profligacy which unceasingly prevailed in this moral pest-house, that it was completely shunned by the more respectable portion of the king's lieges, as if it had been the haunt of gnomes or devils.
cognomenという単語を初めて見た。その意味は文脈からも推測できるが、『リーダーズ』には「苗字; あだ名」と説明されている。